VOL. 1, No. 2 / 3, July 2004

M. R. Hayden [2004] Med Hypotheses Res 1: 171-185.

Global Risk Reduction of Reactive Oxygen Species in
Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and

Melvin R. Hayden*

Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Missouri Columbia,
Missouri, Camdenton, Missouri 65020, USA

Abstract.  Metabolic syndrome (MS), prediabetes (PD), type 2 diabetes mellitus
(T2DM), and accelerated atherosclerosis (atheroscleropathy) are associated with multiple
metabolic toxicities. These toxicities are associated with an excessive production of
reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause damage to proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids,
resulting in structural damage to the vessel wall and the development of vasculopathy
consisting of both macro- and micro-vessel diseases. In addition, a multitude of other
serious medical conditions, including atheroscleropathy, cardiomyopathy,
endotheliopathy, intimopathy, isletopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and/or retinopathy,
may be developed as complications. In order to have a favorable outcome in the
treatment of these horrific diseases and their associated complications, it is suggested that
the primary care clinician should consider taking a global risk reduction approach in
preventing the progressive nature of these diseases as well as their morbid mortal
complications. This global risk reduction approach may be utilized more frequently if it
can be made into a simplified identification and treatment process. To this end, two
acronyms that may be of assistance for the team approach to global risk reduction are
discussed in this paper. The A-FLIGHT toxicity acronym for identification and the RAAS
acronym for treatment regimens are discussed in detail in order to concentrate on the at-
risk population.
The understanding and use of these two acronyms will assist the clinician in restoring
endothelial cell function – endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme reactions and return
to the endothelial cell its health maintenance function to delay and prevent macro and
micro vessel complications in MS, PD, and overt T2DM.

*Address all correspondence to: Dr. Melvin R. Hayden, Department of Family and
Community Medicine, University of Missouri Columbia, Missouri, PO BOX 1140,
Camdenton, Missouri 65020 (USA). Telephone: 573-346-3019. E-Mail:

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