VOL. 7, No. 1/2, December 2011

C. H. Ren [2011] Med. Hypotheses Res. 7: 1-15.

A Concept of Carcinogenesis as the Consequence of
System Decisions Enabled through a Controlled DNA
Protection Phenotype  

Chiang H. Ren*

Kepler Research Inc., 13663 Office Place, Suite 202, Woodbridge, VA 22192, U.S.A.

Abstract. Decades of cancer research have led to the discovery of many contributing
factors and progressively more successful treatment approaches. However, a comprehensive
model for the root cause of cancer that predicts behaviors in all cases still has not been
formulated. Current mutation, microenvironment, and aging based theories on
carcinogenesis all tend to regard cancer as a failure of the cellular, tissue, and organ systems.
This paper alternatively hypothesizes that cancer can be the intentional byproduct of system
decisions to enhance survival and performance during the development of life. To
demonstrate the feasibility of this hypothesis, a control mechanism in the form of a DNA
protection phenotype is identified based on current cellular and genetic understanding. A
conceptual model is then developed to explain carcinogenesis in the context of prioritized
protection of gene functions enabled through the control mechanism. Finally, the DNA
protection phenotype is used to reinterpret cancer related statistical data. Because
carcinogenesis is concluded to be a more controlled process, new treatment strategies
leveraging the method of control can be proposed for further investigation.    

* Correspondence: Dr. Chiang H. Ren, Kepler Research Inc., 13663 Office Place, Suite 202,
Woodbridge, VA 22192, U.S.A. TEL: 703-465-4035. FAX: 703-465-4038. E-MAIL: